Effects of Teamwork on Organization Performances

Effects of Teamwork on Organization Performances

EFFECTS OF TEAMWORK ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCES

 

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ABSTRACT OF EFFECTS OF TEAMWORK ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCES

Effective teamwork has a positive influence on the performance of organizations. Organizations worldwide are striving to improve the effectiveness of their teams in order to be globally competitive. The study was carried out in Paga tech company in Lagos, Nigeria in. The purpose and objective of this study therefore was to establish the impact of teamwork on achievement of organizational targets in Paga Tech. The study was to evaluate the impact of organizational culture on formation of teams on employees, examine the various job descriptions of employees on achievement of organizational goals, to examine the impact of proper communication on team performance and to establish the impact of coordination on performance of employees. The study was conducted in Paga Tech, Lagos. This study adopted descriptive research design. The target population for this study was 111, comprising of management and all other employees of Paga Tech, Lagos state. Using the Morgan and Krejcie Table for determining Sample Sizes, a sample size of 92 respondents, representing 83% of the total population of Paga Tech workers was drawn from each of the category of management and the general employees using stratified random sampling technique. Stratified random sampling was used to identify respondents. The researcher used questionnaires, interviews, document reviews and observation techniques to collect data. Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. From the findings, Managers of Paga Tech noted that among the strategies they have in formation of teams, were to produce greater levels of performance, build reputation of the organization and offer quality services to customers in enhancing achievement of organizational targets.

This chapter presents the background information, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research objectives and questions, significance of the study, assumptions of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study and the organization of the study.

 

CHAPTER ONE OF EFFECTS OF TEAMWORK ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCES

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Team work enhances organizational cohesion or integration consequently giving rise to synchronization of efforts among the employed resulting in higher productivity. The U.S. Climate Action Partnership, as it’s known, is putting intense pressure on the federal government to reduce carbon emissions. Never before has there been such a compact between private companies and nongovernmental organizations. America’s best leaders increasingly reflect this spirit of teamwork. Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman and Brown University President Ruth Simmons have not only achieved significant breakthroughs on their own campuses but also joined to lend a helping hand to Simmons’s alma mater, Dillard University, after Hurricane Katrina.

Organizational culture, Job description, Proper communication, coordination of employees together with the organizational structure will help in the achieving of the targets of the organization. Higgs (1996). A simple definition of teamwork is people working together toward a common goal. Currently many organizational disciplines have adopted teamwork as essential in achieving success and their mission statements routinely allude to the importance of teamwork, utilizing such words as cooperation, coordination, collaboration, and Communication as key components. Although it is one thing for these organizations to write that they have these teamwork components in place,

it is another to measure the components by a defined set of attributes and then use the results of this measurement to pursue what might, in reality, be missing in the teamwork model within each organization. Events of mass effect require teamwork among the diverse multidiscipline

Organizations that are tasked with the Paga Techs’ mission do help the achievement of the goals. In July, 2003, 852representatives from local, federal, and state agencies from across the country met in Arlington, Virginia to discuss the lessons learned from the September, 2001 attack on the Pentagon. The three-day conference was sponsored by Arlington State and focused on the theme Teamwork: A Model for the Nation. Halverson and Tirmizi (2008). The barriers to teamwork are significant. The Paga Techs mission is accomplished through the support of well-wishers and donors who help in the achievement of their goals. Finally, many organizational leaders define teamwork subjectively, making it difficult to delineate achievement.

According to Robbins (1996), teamwork can be instilled into organizational culture with time and focused leadership. However, many organizations lack both of these elements. Community leaders responsible for the Paga Techs’ mission often do not have organizational responsibility for those carrying out the tasks required.

In organization where team work has been embraced Higgs (1996) asserts that higher integration among employees in institutional objectives results in better organizational health. In Nigeria, organizations such as Safaricom Ltd, National Bank of Nigeria, Nigeria Airways, and Paga Techs among others have equally harnessed the power of teamwork in achievement of goals and targets. Mbinya (2013) notes that most organizations have embraced teamwork so as to achieve their organizational target.

Recent study shows that employee working within the team can produce more output as compared to individual (Jones et al, 2007). In Africa, organizations such as AMREF and AAR have equally adopted team work in their core values as it easily enables them to achieve their objectives (Belbin, 2006). In West Africa, Alie et al, (1998) compared West African Organizations to those in the USA and UK and there was a significant difference in the approach used to form teams in the West African Countries. Working in a team empowers people and helps them develop autonomy, which is a source of profound proper communication and reduces stress (Hayes 2005). There are various ways that employees feel that they are satisfied with their jobs is through motivation factors like salary increment and recognition. In cases where there is no motivation and recognition of employees they fail to have strong team work and at the same fail to achieve their targets. Both in the UK and USA, researches done by psychologists have affirmed that teams can expand the outputs of individuals through collaboration and that employees who are working in teams become the standard for the organization’s performance Flick (2006). Hartenian (2003) notes that teamwork is the most appropriate means of improving manpower utilization and potentially raising performance of individuals within and without the organization. With support from upper level management, an employee works confidently in team and increases productivity of the organization. Nowadays, in the new business world, managers are assigning more team projects to employees with opportunities to strengthen their knowledge and develop their skills (Hartenian, 2003). For teams to perform optimally, team members should also have respect and trust for each other in two dimensions – as individuals and for the contribution each brings to team’s results (Brooks 2006).

Individual Job Description should be adequate and precise. All tasks should be included in it to make all the workers feel satisfied after doing the day’s work. An effective team can help the organization achieve credible results. If the organization does not have adequate Job Description there could be overlap and in some cases inadequate. Another view on team effectiveness is by Halverson and Tirmizi (2008), where they state that a team’s effectiveness can be determined by its structure, membership and processes that relate to the level of trust, cohesion, efficacy and commitment. There are also several variables that influence teams in terms of organizational and societal contexts. Halverson and Tirmizi show some other criteria that can be used to measure team effectiveness when focusing on multicultural teams, which are productivity and performance, as well as team members’ satisfaction and learning. Integration of these factors leads to understanding of team’s effectiveness. Cultural norms in this case can have influence on team member’s perception on processes and performance. Team member’s individual criteria for the team’s effectiveness will relate to their satisfaction of the performed task (Halverson &Tirmizi 2008). Individual skills acquired by the employee plays a big role in the achievement of teamwork in organization. An employee in organizations is expected to exhibit professionalism through a consistent commitment to the maintenance of excellent work relationships and development of teamwork. Mintzberg, H (1997). Without proper coordination it is not easy to fit in teams and give diverse views and better approach.

Read Also:  Impact of Employee Satisfaction on Customer Satisfaction

Statement of the Problem

Poor implementation of team work in organizations has had an impact on the overall output of employees in organizations. Employees have, consequently, developed behavioral and attitudinal dispositions against the employer which has led to low team spirit, dissatisfaction and even mistrust in some cases, hence low output at the work place. Ethnocentrism has also weakened team spirit in most organizations in Nigeria. Coupled with the previous factors mentioned, employees are no longer committed to achievement of organizational targets as such but rather interested in achieving their personal satisfaction. Attitude to work is said to be poor, there exist continuous and spiral demand for wage increase, better conditions of service and general workers welfare.

More often than not workers are at loggerheads with the management over one grievance or another (Lowes, 1973). Invariably, these behavioral patterns and dynamics world revolve around the employer-employee. One of the biggest problems faced by managers, organizations and institutions in general is getting workers to do what they need to do in order to achieve organizational targets, goals and objectives with the efficiency it deserves. Because of the complexity of human behavior and dynamics of organizational circumstances, much management goes about managing workers in such manners as could un-doubtably produce sub-optimal results, thereby jeopardizing the chances of the organizations realizing their set goals and objectives efficiently (Lowes, 1973). The reward system may be inappropriate, the knowledge of workers motivational corner-stone may be inadequate; management may be generally native or unable to apply powerful principles to bring our best people in, be they individuals, teams, units or the entire organization. There is a general feeling of workers low productivity in both the public and private sectors of the economy. Organizations are increasingly becoming dynamic and unstable. This evolution has given rise to greater reliance on teams and increased complexity in terms of team composition, skills required, and degree of risk involved.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of teamwork on the achievement of targets in organizations in Nigeria.

Research Objectives

The study aims to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To evaluate the impact of organizational culture on formation of teams on employees at Paga Tech in Lagos state.
  2. To examine the impact of proper communication on team performance in Paga Tech in Lagos state.
  3. To establish the impact of coordination of employees on performance at Paga Tech in Lagos state.

Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of Organizational culture on the formation of teams at Paga Tech in Lagos state?
  2. How does proper communication on team performance affect overall team output at Paga Tech in Lagos state?
  3. What is the impact of coordination of employees on performance of teams at Paga Tech in Lagos state?

Study hypothesis

The study hypothesis is:

Ho1. There is no significant implication of organizational culture on team’s performance in Paga Tech.

Ho2. There is no significant implication of proper communication on team’s performance in Paga Tech.

Significance of the Study

This study sought to establish the impact of teamwork on the achievement of the organizational goals and as such, delved into identifying the challenges facing team formation, operation and overall performance. Consequently, the study exposed the link between the working environment of team members and the structure of the organization and what factors act to negatively affect this link. The findings of the study will be useful to managers of similar organizations.

Limitations of the Study

The study faced several challenges. Key of them all is the reluctance to divulge information to the researcher by the top managers of Paga Techs, Lagos. The junior staff of the study area were reluctant to give information freely for fear of victimization. The researcher ensured that the top level management and all the other respondents were made to be fully aware of the fact that the research is for academic purposes only and that the findings would not be disclosed to anyone. Top level managers were also requested to write a consent letter to the researcher to show commitment in aiding the researcher collect data within the organization. This demystified fear of victimization.

Scope of the Study

For the purposes of this study, external group dynamics (out of work place dynamics) were not examined. The interest was rather focused on the overall impact of teamwork on organizational performance and quality of individual working life in Paga Tech, Lagos state.

Definition of terms

Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way.

Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).

Organizational culture is defined as the underlying beliefs, assumptions, values and ways of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.

Communication is the act of developing meaning among entities or groups through the use of sufficiently mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic conventions.

Coordination the process of organizing people or groups so that they work together properly and well.

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