Abstract on Parental Attitudes Towards E-Learning During Covid 19 Pandemic On Secondary School Students
The paper examines Parental attitudes towards e-learning during covid 19 pandemic in teaching and learning. The research sample consists of 200 parents. The primary source was used in data collection with a structured questionnaire which employed five-point Likert – scale. The questionnaire was administered to respondents. The study adopted the qualitative and quantitative data analysis method. ANOVA, Correlation and Regression analyses were used to test the Hypotheses with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for the establishment of reliability Coefficient. The findings revealed that parents fully cooperated with the E-learning process as it strongly affects the spread of COVID-19. Furthermore, we found that online teaching could help with social distancing. Social media has a negative correlation with community spread of COVID-19, while video conferencing has a positive impact on the importation of COVID-19 and that Internet usage could curb the spread of coronavirus in Nigerian Secondary school. The study concludes that distance learning technologies is an effective strategy the Nigerian Government should adopt in the educational sector to avoid any future disease spread that would disrupt the academic activities. The paper recommends that the ministry of health should enforce all the Institutions of learning in Nigeria from primary to Tertiary to be Information Communication Technology, (ICT) compliance to enable distance learning technologies to be active and efficient.
Chapter One of Parental Attitudes Towards E-Learning During Covid 19 Pandemic On Secondary School Students
Background of study
The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic increased the gaps in the education sector globally. Though, the Coronavirus pandemic is novel, but it already has noxious effects on humanity. COVID-19 outbreak has created educational disruptions, and global health concerns that proved very difficult to manage by global health systems. As at now, no nation or race across the world is immune from the coronavirus pandemic, and the entire world seems overwhelmed by the speed of the spread and the devastating effects of COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic has no boundaries, and the effect is large and fast. Just within few months of the outbreak of the disease, it has drastically changed the lifestyles of the entire world with billions of people being forced to ‘stay at home’, ‘observe self-isolations’, and work and learn from home. It has limited the freedom of people to move, trade or associate. Not only has COVID-19 caused a total lockdown in many countries across the world, but it also caused the death of thousands of people including, women, and the elderly. It was more worrisome to know that reports from various continents, including, America, Africa, Asia, and Europe indicated a daily increase in the number of new cases, and mortality due to COVID-19. As at April, 2020, the number of global COVID-19 cases has surpassed one million cases and more than 220 thousand deaths. It was also frightening that the USA recorded more than 2000 COVID-19 deaths in a single day despite the country’s strong commitment to the fight against the contagion. The number of Coronavirus deaths was soaring with no immediate solutions in sight. The disease showed no sign of slowing down across the globe. The COVID-19 outbreak triggered the President of the United States, President Trump to invoke the “Defense Production Act”. The government also issued a national emergency as a result of the growing number of new cases of Coronavirus in the country (Priscillia, 2020). The U.S government also negotiated with the parliament to approve more than 2 trillion US dollars’ stimulus package to combat the Coronavirus pandemic, and to provide some reliefs to citizens and businesses affected by the Coronavirus outbreak. Similar actions were also replicated in many other countries including, Germany where 810 billion US dollars were also set aside to contain the effects of the pandemic, yet the virus rapidly spread to many parts of the world.
Distance learning technologies is the process of learning from home with the use of internet, Email and Telephone. Distance learning technologies could also be called online learning, and this concept of remote learning is spreading worldwide. Many organizations are adopting it to avoid office congestion and make use of their flex-time to be productive. The word telecommute means to learn from home, communicating with your office, customers and others by telephone, emails and online (Hornby et al., 2010). A teleworker could use teleconferencing to hold meetings, i.e., a conference or discussion is held where members from different locations are able to interact using on-line tools like Zoom, Goole Meet, WhatsApp and other communication means, such as video and telephone. Distance learning technologies thus involves performing learn from home or another remote location with the use of computers and telecommunicating equipment (Daft, 2010).
The presence of the Third-wave has taken the front stage globally, the western world and global south alike. Electronic learning has surpassed the traditional form of learning adopted the educational sector before the crisis. In the 1990s, organizations usually utilized a particular room for holding videoconferences, equipped with television cameras, but today, one can participate in videoconference without leaving office, due to the modern computers and telephones with integrated camera and microphones (Robbins, Timothy and Seema, 2008).
Learning from home with a terminal which linked to the central organization or networked with other learners is teleworking (Armstrong, 2006).
Distance learning technologies is the concept of learning from home by using a computer, telephone, email and internet. Globalization made the process of learning from any location reasonably easy because the world is like a village. Unlike today, most of the computers and phones in the 1980s and 90s did not have inbuilt cameras and microphone. As a result of the upgrade, telephones and computers with in-built cameras and microphones facilitated the workflow, so business can now be carried out from home as it would be in an office setting, but with less stress. Nigeria has 92.3 million internet users, and the number is expected to increase to 187.8 million in 2023. This shows that internet penetration in the Nigerian population was 47.1 per cent in 2018 and is expected to grow to 84.5 per cent in 2023 (Clement, 2019). Nigeria was ranked as the 47th in Saharan Africa and the 21st out of 65 global in terms of internet freedom (Freedom House Index, 2019). Internet usage in Nigeria is of great advantage to distance learning technologies in learning and teaching. The mobile phone internet is common among Nigerians, with almost 50 million people accessing mobile internet with smartphones (clement, 2019). The use of internet, telephones and other social media, like zoom, Google class and meet, WhatsApp etc. make remote activities effortless and less stressful. Remote access allows the use of a computer system, telephone, email, etc., from another location by connecting with the electronic link, (The Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary, 2003). Remote access makes lecturing from home effortless and enjoyable and enables the teacher and students to interact as if they were in a regular classroom via Videoconferencing, Skype, Google Meet, WhatsApp video, Zoom app, etc.
Statement of problem
The institution closures are impacting not only the students, teachers, and families, but have far-reaching economic and societal consequences. In response to school closures, UNESCO recommended the use of distance learning programs and open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education.
According to UNESCO monitoring as of 7th July 2020, approximately 1,067,590,512 learners have been affected due to school closures in response to the pandemic, 110 countries have implemented nationwide closures, impacting about 61% of the world’s student population. Several other countries have implemented localized closures impacting millions of additional learners. Solely in Nepal, about eighty- seven lakh students ranging from preprimary to tertiary education level [ISCED levels 0 to 8] are affected due to COVID-19 pandemic closure. While it is difficult to predict how the pandemic will unfurl, the possibility of extended restrictions on physical distancing exists.
The United Nations had reported that 166 countries closed schools and universities to limit the spread of the coronavirus which affected about One and a half billion children and young people, representing 87 percent of the enrolled population.
Many researchers have studied the impact of online studies in Nigerian educational sector, Onyeukwu, Akanegbu, and Igbokwe, 2017). The introduction of distance learning technologies in Nigerian learning institutions has a lot of benefits for both students and teachers. In a situation where distance learning technologies is applicable in any learning institution; the classes are not usually interrupted.
Coronavirus, which was nicknamed COVID-19 started in Wuhan in China in late 2019 and the virus has been causing havoc around the world ever since. An Italian has brought the virus to Nigeria. The economic, social and educational progress of many countries has been disrupted. The ugly pandemic of COVID-19 caused many lockdowns and disruption in the activities of many sectors, and schools were shut down. It became urgent to apply distance learning technologies practice in teaching from home to students all over the country. Distance learning technologies remains the only tool that could be used to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigerian educational sector. However, the concept is having some challenges, such as; inadequate electric power supply, high cost of airtime, poor network service from network providers. These problems have been hampering the efficiency and effective use of remote learn activities, social distancing and online teaching in teaching and learning. These challenges led to finding a proper solution.
- What are the attitude of parents towards e-learning during covid 19 pandemic?
- How has online teaching affected social distancing in teaching and learning?
- To what extent has Video conferencing impacted physical contact spread of COVID-19 in teaching and learning?
- To what extend has internet usage affected the community spread of COVID-19 in teaching and learning?
The main aim of the study is to examine Parental attitudes towards e-learning during covid 19 pandemic in teaching and learning, other objectives that were raised in line with research questions are as follows:
- to determine how online teaching affects social distancing in teaching and learning;
- to examine the impact of video conferencing on the physical contact spread of COVID-19 in teaching and learning
- to test the effect of internet usage on community spread of COVID-19 in teaching and learning.
Null Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in line with research questions and objectives: Ho1: Parents attitude towards e-learning enables the performance of students.
Ho2: There is no correlation between Video conference and physical contact spread of COVID-19 in teaching and learning.
Significance of the study
The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.
The study develops recommendations for the Nigerian Government in policy formulation concerning the Nigerian educational sector. This will provide Secondary school management in Nigeria with an alternative for mitigating the harmful effects of any future disease outbreak with the ability to disrupt educational and school activities. The study contributes to the body of knowledge and can serve as reference material for other researchers.
Scope/Limitation of the study
The study covers parents in secondary schools in Abuja, although rural communities were randomly selected as areas of study. Thematically, the study is restricted to parents’ attitude on e-learning and the students’ academic performance in secondary schools and environmental health behavior of rural inhabitants in AMAC education zone.
Organization of the Study
This thesis includes Five Chapters. Chapter One, gives an overview of the study. The introduction and the aim of the study also presented in this chapter. The second Chapter (Chapter Two) covers literature review and the theoretical background of the study whereas the research methodology addressed in the third Chapter. Chapter Four, contain the analysis of the research. The analysis was intended to answer the research questions put forth in order to answer the problem definition and recommendations for United Bank of Africa. Finally, Chapter Five presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations. In addition, this paper also included a list of references as well as annexes in relation to the study
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